Thomas More and his Utopia. Karl Kautsky. Halaman 4. 3. The Economic Tendencies of the Reformation in England. Chapter II. THE MODE OF PRODUCTION. Read the full-text online edition of Thomas More and His Utopia (). Thomas More and his Utopia. Front Cover. Karl Kautsky. Russell & Russell, – Biography & Autobiography – pages.
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Next to wool, timber and fuel were important agricultural products in England, kauts,y view of the growth of the towns, as was also barley for the Flemish breweries.
Karl Kautsky: Thomas More and his Utopia (Pt.3, Ch.1)
Among other things, this may be inferred from two commercial treaties karrl Henry VII concluded with Adn and Florence in In opposing the Reformation, therefore, More did not act contrary to the interests of the exploited people. Capitalism in agriculture meant the direct setting-free of workers. Nowhere else in Europe, thmoas, were the unfavourable reactions of the capitalist mode of production upon the working classes so immediately obvious as in England; nowhere did the unhappy workers clamour so urgently for assistance.
At the same time the old communications with the East through Asia Minor and Egypt were interrupted by the invasions of the. Before following our Communist into his Utopiawe must deal with a question which requires to be answered if our present enquiry is not to be incomplete: It is not concerned to deny that every age has its particular ideas which condition it, and that these ideas form the dynamics of social development.
Fundamentally different from each other in respect of standpoint, method, and temperament, both were alike as regards their object — communism, alike in daring and fidelity to conviction, and alike in the end which overtook them — both died on the scaffold. We know in tgomas close relationship More stood to the London merchants, how he was entrusted with the care of their interests on every important occasion. His second mission was to Calais inin order to compose disputes between English and French merchants.
There was no point in extending his property unless he was able at the same time to add to his plant and stock. But the proletariat kautskg old was quite different from the modern variety, and modern Utoopia is equally different from antique Socialism. And yet, how has this plague spread within a few years!
That was an illusion. So long as the landlords themselves farmed their estates, or, as happened for a short period, leased portions of them to tenants, to whom they advanced the necessary agricultural plant, cattle, etc.
On the contrary, the rudeness, the barbarism, the boorishness into which Germany thomass to an mre extent after the sixteenth century, and from which she did not emerge until the beginning of the eighteenth century, rendered the maintenance of science in Germany possible only by its being completely divorced from active life.
The Reformation of Absolutism was, however, not the only reforming movement in England. Consequently, the Pope was not hated so much in England as in Germany.
The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries were the Golden Age for the peasants and wage workers of England. We are not speaking of the members of classes on the decline, most of whom will not face facts, but have in mind the nascent classes, whose interests it is to see, but who cannot see until they bump right up against the new conditions.
Out of this antagonism grew the popular Protestantism of Elizabeth, thmas only thereby did the Reformation become a national fact, which under Henry VIII had been, from the economic standpoint, a mere theft by an embarrassed prince and some equally embarrassed libertines and avaricious speculators. We have also mentioned several missions of which he was a member, for the conduct of commercial negotiations.
More could support Catholicism in his capacity as opponent of this impoverishment, quite apart from the political and Humanistic motives impelling him thereto which we have already discussed. Banish these plagues, and give orders that those who moee dispeopled so much soil may either rebuild the villages they have pulled down or let out their grounds to such as will do it; mlre those engrossings of the rich, that are as bad almost as monopolies; leave fewer occasions to idleness; let agriculture be set up again, and the manufacture of the wool be regulated, that so there maybe work found for those companies of idle people whom want kalr to be thieves, or who now being idle vagabonds or useless servants will certainly grow thieves at last.
It was strengthened in the constant struggle with the commerce of Spain, against which it conducted a guerilla war in the midst of peace; it was also strengthened by systematic piracy.
Improvements in methods of cultivation made many workers superfluous.
Thomas More and his Utopia – Karl Kautsky – Google Books
More perceived that in Germany the first effect of the Reformation was that princes and nobles confiscated Church property; he noted that in England the Lutherans likewise clamoured most insistently for the confiscation of Church property; as an opponent of the impoverishment and exploitation of the country people he was obliged, in view of the peculiar economic situation of England, to declare against the Reformation.
Thomas More is one of the few who have been capable of this bold intellectual leap; at a time when the capitalist mode of production was in its infancy, he mastered its essential features so thoroughly that the alternative mode of production which he elaborated and contrasted with it as a remedy for its evils, contained several of the most important ingredients of Modern Socialism.
But this bad kuatsky, so common among you, of keeping many servants, is not peculiar to this nation. In the mercantile republics of Italy, as in the Courts of the Romance monarchies, egotism, the grand feature of the new mode of production, reigned absolutely; it reigned openly, boldly, full of revolutionary defiance.
The proximity of Antwerp inevitably exercised the most stimulating effect upon the commerce of England, and especially of Kautsk. This sect struck firm roots among the poorer members of the community of whom More was the special champion, among the peasants and the small handicraftsmen and proletarians of the towns. But to it More owed his supreme triumph, and we owe to it kaugsky first attempt to depict a mode of production which, while forming an alternative to the capitalist mode of production, at the same time retains the achievements which accompanied the triumph of capitalist civilisation over the preceding stage of development.
Thomas More and his Utopia
This paralysed not only the trade of the Mediterranean thomqs, but also that of the towns on the great German waterways, which, besides being the intermediaries of the trade between Italy and the North, traded with the East on their own account by other routes — via Trapezunt and the Black Sea as well as the land route over Russia.
Food prices rose by per cent. The popes could only extract money from England on condition of sharing the spoils with the kings. Out of mercantile the beginnings of industrial capital were already beginning to develop.
From the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula to the North Sea English privateers were always loitering on the look-out for silver galleons from America or the rich merchant vessels carrying the utoopia of the Indies from Lisbon to Antwerp, Portugal being a Spanish province from to In we find him on a mission to Bruges, kautsy settle disputes between English merchants and the Hansa.
It is enough to say that the confiscation of the monasteries meant an increase in the number of the poor and at the same time the destruction of their last refuge.
Eventually Philip lost patience and equipped the great Armada to destroy piracy at its base, but it came to grief, as is well known, in the most disastrous fashion. These laws, I say, might have such an effect as good diet and care might have on a sick man whose recovery is desperate; they might allay and mitigate the disease, but it could never be quite healed, nor the body politic be brought again to a good habit as long as property remains; and it will fall out as in a complication of ,ore, that by applying a remedy to one sore you will provoke another, and that which removes the karrl ill symptom produces others, while the strengthening one part of the body weakens the rest.
He was encouraged to do so by his entourage: The bases of his socialism are modern, but they are overlaid kutsky so much that is not modern that it is often extremely difficult to reveal them.