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In the following, we show how PaGeO gets well positioned at the target square shadowed in Figure The performance of PaGeO are compared with the four backhauling strategies described previously in terms of rejection ratio and number of required OCs. When the signal is clipped, extra-harmonics and intermodulation products between the modulating subcarriers are generated.

The optical wavelength, the number of subcarriers per optical channel and transmlssion transmission distance Stimulated Raman Scattering: RoF-based Mobile Backhauling In indoor applications, where different MAC protocols are still competing to get standardized, there is a possibility to design as in [10] and [68] a RoF network together with its own MAC protocol. The experimental feasibility of such a frequency relocation scheme using bandpass sampling theory has been addressed and discussed in [].

Both time-horizon objectives are synthesized through the schematics in Figure 3. The second approach keeps the same reuse factor whatever the number of radio channels per cell, but includes new RFs requested from the radio broker for instance thus the size of the RF pool increases as well. A higher number of optical channels increases the crosstalk penalty. The randomness of the evolutionary process can lead to some infeasible individuals. Each cell faisceeau modulate a single OC: Indeed, the D-RoF link is mapped into several CPRI links when the line-rate exceeds trwnsmission maximum line-rate specified by the protocol, i.

We should notice that the heterodyne crosstalk is definitely non-coherent. Supported by the comparative study in [18], RoF transceiver candidates are ranked in Table 4. The first population P o is created by generating randomly individuals i.

Individuals of Q are then mutated faiscewu a probability p m. Hybrid architectures describes how backhaul mutates towards a coexistance between circuit and packet transport.

EAM can be realized using either a bulk semiconductor material or multiple quantum wells MQW positioned within an intrinsic region of a reverse biased p-i-n diode.


Since the EBL represents RBs radio spectrum slices that are definitively lost and cannot longer be allocated to mobile users for traffic transmission, a mobile operator using GeRoFAN for cellular backhauling may define a threshold for the maximum EBL that can be tolerated to achieve a cost-effective network planning. The optimization programm runs until an optimal solution is found The latter specifies that for a multi-objective optimization, an improvement on one objective is sacrificed by a degradation on another one.

Lightpath modeled as a cascade of RAU operating modes.

Such an approach was followed in the study of [27], where authors investigate the optimal length of the modulator in order to maximize the RF gain. Please fill this form, we will try to respond as soon as possible. In [72] and [29], the problem of impedance matching has been worked out through different matching scenarios. Faiscau bands are also included on both sides of the RF channel according to the mobile system standard [].

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Therefore, using an external modulator hettzien conjunction with the laser is preferable to ensure higher bandwidth with acceptable modulation performance [30] RAU with remotely generated optical signal For such a configuration 4, the RAU is equipped with an external modulator which is remotely fed by a high optical power laser diode DFB located at the head-end node.

A relatively narrow band radio link provides direct transfers record data or tests between devices and central registration system. Increasing the modulation depth per subcarrier increases the relative optical sideband intensity.

Mr Kazmierski estimates that the proposed approach to describe analytically the behavior of the EAM represents an original and fasceau contribution. EAM quasi-static circuit model A typical analog RoF link can be represented as a concatenation of an EAM equivalent circuit model, the fiber medium, a photo-detector equivalent circuit and eventually a post-detector amplifier. The capacity loss is converted into bandwidth B, called equivalent bandwidth loss, which can be interpreted as the amount of “misused” bandwidth [].

However, IEEE is sensitive to. Convergence quality analysis of PaGeO. It is represented by its microwave frequency [f] and its relative position with respect to other RF channels sharing the same optical carrier.


However, to get implemented, Sync-E requires hardware support in all devices in the network. The expression of the CNR is given by Equation 4. Design techniques like Selective Area Growth SAG have proved their effectiveness to achieve such a spectrum shift [17]. Such overheads enable the digitized flow to be exchanged between the RRH and the radio equipment controller head-end node over a digital either electrical or optical serial link.


Building a comprehensive QoT-tool tree occurs through optical beat interference and eventually within the modulator if several RFs are present at the same RAU.

Un faisceau hertzien transmet selon les cas: In this chapter, we position the GeRoFAN architecture within the backhaul solutions constellation and we highlight its main innovative features. In addition, least penalized channels differ from one path to another.

RBS noise occurs when the Rayleigh back-scattered incident wave, caused by microscopic non-homogeneities of the fiber material, interferes with the reflected modulated optical wave. For the case of D-RoF, we exploit the upconversion feature of the transmisslon sampling theory.

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But because of this, we deprive ourselves of the benefits of constant monitoring. Celui-ci interroge successivement les differents appareils d’acquisition.

Chapter 2 carries out a comprehensive state of the art on the evolution of the cellular backhauling and its main future trends.

The signal is quantified by the modulation tfansmission m and a photocurrent I o. Unlike electro-optic modulators, EAMs work at smaller bias voltage.

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The time-window depends on the mobility pattern of subscribers, the size of radio cells, the yransmission configuration sectorization, inter-raus direct traffic pipelining using X2 interface in LTE for instance, type of area covered The MILP performs an exact combinatorial optimization through the finite discrete search space. In general the ASE noise pa very small 70 dbmbut it may become a dominant noise source when numerous in-line amplifiers are inserted along the light-path.

At the opposite, multi-mode laser diodes MMLD provide a more economical alternative for less demanding applications.